Wargames are based upon real events. They attempt to represent a reasonable approximation of the actual forces, terrain, and other material factors faced by the actual participants.
Battlefield: A map displays terrain features that affect movement and combat resolution. A hexagon overlay is placed on the map to assist in force placement and movement calculations.
Order of Battle: Counters represent the force size and their strength.
Rules: The wargame has a Sequence of Play in which each force conducts movement and combat commands.
The principles of War: Carl von Clausewitz
War games use a comprehensive theory of combat, Clausewitz's Law of Numbers, which is based upon the relative numerical
powers of two opponents in which combat power for each was calculated as:
P = N * Q * V
N represents the number of troops in the force, which are the counters.
Q is the fighting quality of the troops, which is the attacking and defending strength values.
V is the variable factors reflecting the combat circumstances, such as the terrain effects.
In the map above, the counters represent the force size (N) and the unit's stength (Q).
Terrain is the variable that affects the unit's movement (TEM) and it's combat effectiveness (TEC) (V).